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Coronavirus Pandemic: India’s Mongoloid looking people face upsurge of racism

Contents

1. Upsurge of racism against India’s Mongoloid looking people

2. Emblematic cases of racism against India’s Mongoloid looking people during COVID-19 pandemic

3. The way forward: India must enact an anti-racism law


1. Upsurge of racism against India’s Mongoloid looking people

Coronavirus (COVID-19) has affected the entire world and people whose physical features resemble the Chinese have been facing racism and acts of racial discrimination across the world because of the origin of the virus in Wuhan, China.

While racial discrimination against India’s Mongoloid looking people is not new and the Government of India had appointed the “Bezbaruah Committee to look into the concerns of the people of the North East living in other parts of the country” on 05.02.2014,[1] in the aftermath of COVID-19 outbreak, there has been massive and unprecedented upsurge of acts of racism and racial discrimination against them across the length and breadth of the country. India’s Mongoloid looking people living in other parts of the country, especially in the metropolis of India face these acts of racism and racial discrimination.

The Rights and Risks Analysis Group (RRAG) has been monitoring acts of racism and racial discrimination against India’s Mongoloid looking people who have been living mainly in metropolitan cities for education, employment and medical treatment. The RRAG has recorded 22 reported cases of racial discrimination or hate crimes from 7 February 2020 to 25 March 2020. These incidents are just tip of the iceberg as India’s Mongoloid looking people have been facing discrimination on daily basis and the same do not make news.

Apart from being called “Corona”, “Chinese”, “Chinki”, India’s Mongoloid looking people were spat on and called “coronavirus”, forcibly quarantined despite showing no COVID-19 symptoms because of their looks, denied entry into apartment complex, forced to leave apartment, threatened with eviction from their apartment, forced to leave restaurant to make others comfortable, none wanting to share transport with them, etc.

These acts of racism and racial discrimination have taken place in upscale restaurants and campuses of prestigious institutions like Kirori Mal College of Delhi University, Tata Institute of Social Sciences (TISS), Mumbai and the National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT), an institution of the government of India which prepares school syllabus for students upto 12th Standard under the Central Board of Secondary Education. The incidents had taken place across the length and breadth of the country such as Gujarat, Delhi, Tamil Nadu, Punjab, West Bengal and Maharashtra, showing that prejudices and acts of racism and racial discrimination are not confined to particular areas.

These acts of racial discrimination have been raised by leaders from the North East India. On 17 March 2020, Mr Tapir Gao, a Member of Parliament raised the issue of racial discrimination against people from the North East states in the wake of the novel coronavirus (Covid-19) pandemic. He appealed to the centre to give directives and advisories to respective state authorities to stop racial discrimination against the people of northeast.[2] On 18 March 2020, Minister of State in the Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports  from Arunachal Pradesh Kiren Rijiju said that a strict advisory is being issued to all States to take action after some incidents of racial remarks against people belonging to the North East in some parts of the country were reported in the wake of the coronavirus outbreak.[3] On 21 March 2020, the Ministry of Home Affairs-North East Division issued an Advisory to all States and Union Territories to take appropriate action against cases of harassment which are “racially discriminatory, inconvenient and painful to them”.

Yet, these measures of the Union of India are not enough for two reasons:

First, there is no law against racism and racial discrimination in India. Police usually invoke Section 354 (assault or criminal force to woman with intent to outrage her modesty) and Section of 509 (insult to the modesty of women) if the victim is Mongoloid looking woman but there are no provisions when the victim is a male. None of the racially discriminatory terms used against Mongoloid looking people such as “Momos”, “Chinkis” etc are defined as offences under the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act of 1989. Further, all Mongoloid looking people such as the Meitis or Tibetans are not listed as Scheduled Tribes to be covered under the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act of 1989. The police are at loss which sections or which laws to invoke given the legal vacuum against acts of racism and racial discrimination.

Second, key leaders of the Government of India have not made any public statement condemning upsurge of racist attacks against the Mongoloid looking people. There has not been any public statement from either Prime Minister Narendra Modi or Home Minister Amit Shah or Minister of Development of North Eastern Region (DONER) Dr Jitendra Singh on the issue.

India has imposed countrywide lock-down from 25.03.2020 to contain COVID-19 and across the world, COVID-19 has been increasingly creating “Sinophobia” with dire consequences for people who look similar to the Chinese. As the fear and prejudices associated with COVID-19 spreads across the country, India’s Mongoloid looking people are all set to face increased acts of racism and racial discrimination with virtual impunity as there is neither law nor public rebuke from the key leaders of the government of India against these despicable acts of racism and racial discrimination.

2. Emblematic cases of racism against India’s Mongoloid looking people during COVID-19 pandemic

India’s Mongoloid looking people mainly inhabit North East India States of Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Tripura and Sikkim. They also reside in the Union Territory of Ladakh and Darjeeling region of West Bengal while West Bengal also has Chinese-origin Indian citizens. Tibetan refugees are settled in Himachal Pradesh, Karnataka, Uttarakhand, Arunachal Pradesh, West Bengal, Jammu and Kashmir, Ladakh and Delhi.

The Rights and Risks Analysis Group (RRAG) recorded 22 reported emblematic cases of racism and racial discrimination. It is stated that these are just tip of the iceberg as the Mongoloid looking people have been facing discrimination on daily basis. Many of the volunteers of the RRAG faced similar discrimination on the streets of Delhi following the COVID-19 pandemic.

Case No.1: Two Northeast girls threatened with eviction from their apartment in Ahmadabad, Gujarat

On 23 March 2020, an incident of racial discrimination against a group of women from Northeast India living in Ahmadabad, Gujarat was reported.[4] A video clip of the incident, which has gone viral in social media, showed a group of women from the Northeast India crying as the housing society they have been living tried to forcefully evict them and blamed them for “bringing coronavirus in India”. In the video, a police official, reportedly from Gujarat Police, can be seen reassuring the women that they are safe and do not have to go anywhere.[5]

Case No.2: An M-Phil scholar from Manipur spat on and called ‘coronavirus’ in New Delhi

On the night of 22 March 2020, a 25-year-old woman from Manipur who is pursuing her M-Phil was spat on with Paan and called a ‘corona’ by a man in North-West Delhi’s Mukherjee Nagar area. The woman was going to her home in Vijaynagar after buying grocery from the local market when the incident happened. In her complaint to the police, she stated that a man in his early 50s passed lewd comments on her and when she objected, he spat on her and managed to escape after shouting “Corona”.

“The scariest part was that the paan juice entered my eyes, including bits of tobacco. I was in shock and my eyes were burning.”- she told ThePrint.in.

The Deputy Commissioner of Police (Northwest) Vijayanta Arya confirmed the incident and said that the police registered an FIR and was trying to identify the accused who reportedly escaped from the scene in a two wheeler after the incident.  On the basis of her complaint, an FIR has been registered under IPC section 509 at Mukherjee Nagar police station and police started scanning all the CCTV cameras of the area to ascertain the identity of the accused. Chief Minister of Delhi Arvind Kejriwal expressed his dismay over the incident and asked the Delhi Police to find out the culprit and take strict action.[6]

The accused 40 year old Gaurav Vohra has since been arrested and his scooter has been seized.

Case No.3: Indian Idol fame Meiyang Chang, called “coronavirus” on the street

On 22 March 2020, Indian Idol fame Meiyang Chang, an Indian Chinese, shared his ordeal of facing racial discrimination amid the coronavirus spread. Two guys on a speeding bike in Mumbai called him “coronavirus”.[7]

Case No.4:  Activist Ms Alana Golmei called “coronavirus” at NCERT campus in Delhi

On 21 March 2020, Alana Golmei, hailing from Manipur and chairperson of “North East Support Centre and Helpline” in New Delhi which helps against racist attacks, was also called “Coronavirus” herself in the campus of the National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT), autonomous organisation of the Government of India which prepares school syllabus for students upto 12th Standard under the Central Board of Secondary Education. Ms Golmei stated that a group of four-five NCERT staff were standing and as Golmei and her friend from Meghalaya came closer to them, one of them said: “Coronavirus aa gaya [Coronavirus has come]”.[8]

Case No.5: Nine Naga youths forced to undergo 24 hours quarantine in Ahmadabad, Gujarat despite showing no symptoms because of their physical features

On 20 March 2020, 24 year old Cathy Chakhesang and her eight colleagues from Nagaland working at a dental insurance company’s call centre had to spend the night in a government quarantine facility meant for suspected patients of the coronavirus disease allegedly because of their Mongoloid looks. They had no physical symptoms of the disease, no foreign travel history, no apparent contact with any laboratory-confirmed Covid-19 patient and none of them ticked any of the boxes that qualify people to be treated as a suspect case. Someone anonymously complained to the Ahmedabad police that these youths from Nagaland could be infected by the novel coronavirus because of their physical features. Police landed up in their office and told the employer that some public had complained about the Naga youths saying that they were carrying the virus because they look like Chinese. The police then allegedly summoned an ambulance, which ferried them to a sports club that has been turned into quarantine centre by the Ahmadabad Municipal Corporation. Chakhesang and her colleagues had to spend the night in the quarantine ward and were let go only on the midnight of 21 March 2020.  Ahmedabad police commissioner Ashish Bhatia confirmed the incident.[9]

Case No.6: Racial discrimination of people from northeast in Chennai, Tamil Nadu

On 20 March 2020, the North East India Welfare Association in Chennai complained to the Police Commissioner AK Viswanathan alleging racial discrimination against people of Northeast origin in Chennai after the outbreak of the Covid-19. The Association alleged that two incidents of racial profiling and discrimination had taken place in Velachery and Besant Nagar locality of the city in the past one week and demanded setting up of a 24/7 Helpline for assistance of North-east people in the city.[10]

Case No.7: North East students face racial discrimination in Punjab

Recently a video of a group of students from northeast India studying in Punjab went viral on social media wherein they narrated personal accounts of discriminations and racism they faced. The students narrated how people have now retorted to call them “coronavirus”. The students claimed that the locals tease them by calling them “coronavirus”. One of the students stated that many of the locals teased them.[11] In the video, the students shared instances where people labelled them as “coronavirus” because of their appearance like Chinese. They appealed to everyone to refrain from such hurtful behaviour as it not only has an impact on their being, but also on their studies and education.[12]

Case No.8: None wanting to share transport with Ranchungailiu Gonmei in New Delhi because of her looks

On 18 March 2020, Ranchungailiu Gonmei, 23 years, who is pursuing her Master’s in English literature from Delhi University shared discrimination faced by her. Gonmei stated that she was returning from Hansraj College and no one wanted to sit in the same e-rickshaw with her because of her Mongoloid looks.[13]

Case No.9: Student from Darjeeling called “coronavirus” in Kolkata, West Bengal

On 17 March 2020, a 22-year-old student of Jadavpur University, hailing from Darjeeling faced racial abuse in Lake Gardens area in Kolkata where he stays. The victim was waiting to catch an auto rickshaw when a group of people repeatedly called him “coronavirus”. They shouted on his face and stared at him showing their disgust.[14]

Case No.10: 74 year old cancer patient Rinzin Dorjee and his daughter Tsering Yangzom denied entry into Apartment complex in Mumbai, Maharashtra as alleged Chinese

On 16 March 2020, 74 year old Rinzin Dorjee and his daughter Tsering Yangzom from Northeast India were denied entry in Shree Sainath Housing Society at Mulund (East), Mumbai on the suspicion that they hail from China. Mr Dorjee has been a frequent visitor to Mumbai for his cancer treatment and has been staying at the Housing Society for the last three months. However, on 16 March the security guard did not allow him and his daughter to enter the society alleging that they might be infected with the virus. The daughter claimed that the society denied them entry despite showing valid documents.[15]

Case No.11: Girl from Shillong, Meghalaya made to leave Delhi restaurant to make others comfortable

In an opinion piece published in East Mojo on 16 March 2020, Pallavi Ghosh, a senior editor at CNN- News 18, wrote about a horrific incident of racial discrimination she was witness to in a restaurant at the upscale Pandara Market of Delhi. The editor has gone to the restaurant to pick up some takeaway when she noticed a girl (from Shillong, Meghalaya) was eating her meal inside the restaurant. A group of ladies walked in and took offence on seeing the girl with Mongoloid features dinning at the restaurant. They created a scene and demanded that the girl be asked to leave or they would call the health department and the police. The helpless girl pleaded that she is not Chinese but from Shillong which is a part of India. Eventually the girl left the restaurant crying.[16]

Case No.12:  Zosang Pachau, Mizo student called “coronavirus” in Delhi

On 15 March 2020, one Zosang Pachau, a 24-year-old student at the University of Delhi and a native of Mizoram, was harassed while on the way to college. He stated that he was getting on the metro when a group of young men started pointing at him with comments ‘Corona virus aagaye’ [coronavirus has come here]. Pachau has been living in Delhi for the last five years.[17]

Case No.13: 21 year old girl student of Presidency College from Darjeeling called “coronavirus” in Kolkata, West Bengal

On 14 March 2020, a 21-year-old girl, an undergraduate student from Darjeeling, allegedly faced racial discrimination in Kolkata. Recounting the incident, the victim stated that she was walking from Sealdah to Moulali on AJC Bose Road on  the afternoon of 14 March 2020 with three of her batch mates, all from Darjeeling and Siliguri, when a group of men standing on the roadside commented ‘coronavirus esheche (here comes coronavirus)’ after they saw them.[18]

Case No.14: Student from Darjeeling faces social ostracisation in Kolkata bus, West Bengal

On 14 March 2020, a 21-year-old undergraduate student from Darjeeling allegedly faced social discrimination when people did not sit near him on a crowded bus. According to the student, he was returning from college on a private bus when people refused to sit near him throughout the 30-minute journey. He was gawked at throughout the journey.[19]

Case No.15: Pamziuliu Gonmei, Assistant professor, Delhi University called “Chinese, Corona” in Delhi

On 10 March 2020, Pamziuliu Gonmei, a 26-year-old Assistant Professor at the University of Delhi faced racial discrimination based on her looks. Reportedly, a young boy at India Gate walked past her and said, “Ye toh Chinese hai, CoronaCorona [She is Chinese, Corona, Corona]”. On another occasion two boys pointed out to her and said, “Ye Corona [She is Corona]” while she was walking in her colony in Mukherjee Nagar.[20]

Case No.16: Advocate Ms Bandana from Northeast called “corona” during Holi, Delhi

On 10 March 2020, Ms Bandana from the North East and an advocate practicing at the Saket District Court, Delhi was allegedly called “corona” during Holi. She said that there have been many such instances when people racially targeted her.[21]

Case No.17:  Namguilung Panmel from Manipur called “coronavirus” in Pune

On 9 March 2020, Namguilung Panmel, a native of Manipur reportedly faced racial slurs at Undri, Pune. Panmel went out to buy some food when some man at the back of the queue began yelling in Marathi and called him “coronavirus”.  Everyone present smirked. And, later that evening, while he was returning from a friend’s place a traffic cop stopped him and asked for his documents and licence. The police imposed him a fine for  not wearing a helmet, but that he had let all the other helmetless riders off and commented ‘Woh log toh local aadmihai, tum toh China se ho na, kisko pata tere paas coronavirus hai ki nahi (they are locals, you are from China, who knows if you are infected or not)”.[22]

Case No.18: Northeast woman called ‘coronavirus’ near Delhi University, hit by water balloons

On 3 March 2020, a  woman from Northeast  and her friend were reportedly hit by water balloons and called ‘Coronavirus’ by two men on a bike at Kamla Nagar near Delhi University’s North Campus.  Police officials confirmed the incident and said that an FIR was registered at Roop Nagar police station under IPC sections 188 (disobedience to order duly promulgated by public servant) and 354 (assault or criminal force to woman with intent to outrage her modesty). A senior police official confirmed that the complainant had mentioned she was called “Coronavirus” by those who threw the balloons at her.[23]

CaseNo.19: North East students at Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Mumbai allege racial discrimination because of COVID-19

On 17 February 2020, students from North Eastern states studying at the Tata Institute of Social Sciences (TISS) in Mumbai complained of racial discrimination in and around the campus in the wake of the coronavirus outbreak in China. The Northeast Students’ Forum of the TISS alleged that some of the members of the forum had been accused of carrying the deadly virus, which originated in China, owing to their facial features. The Forum asked the institute’s administration to intervene in the matter to ensure the safety of students from the Northeast.[24]

CaseNo.20: Northeast student called “coronavirus” at Kirori Mal College, Delhi University

On 11 February 2020, a student of Kirori Mal College hailing from northeast India was harassed and called ‘Coronavirus’ on campus.  On 6 February 2020, the student went to the canteen for lunch along with a friend. While they were waiting for the food, there was a group of three male students standing. Without any provocation, two of the guys started throwing racial slurs at the girl. She alleged that they made racially motivated comments such as “Look, the corona is here!” and was called “coronavirus”.[25] The student made a complaint to the authorities over the incident of harassment and racial slurs faced on campus.

The North East Students’ Cell had also written to the College Principal alleging that there have been recurring incidences of racial discrimination against students from the north-east in the college campus. It asked the principal to take concrete action against the students who made such racially derogatory remarks.[26]

Case No.21: Naga woman made to leave apartment in Mumbai, Maharashtra as alleged Chinese

On 10 February 2020, a 23-year-old woman who had just arrived in Mumbai from Nagaland went to visit a friend staying in a housing society in Chembur in Mumbai. The woman was wearing a mask. A local resident shot a video of the Naga woman suspecting her to be a Chinese national suffering from novel coronavirus. At around 8.30 PM when she rang the apartment’s doorbell a male resident of the building started shooting a video of her. The neighbour sent the video to the owner of the flat, who had gone to Kerala and within minutes, the host received the video from her Kerala-based landlord, who questioned her about the visitor. The host is also a 23-year-old woman, from Nagaland studying at Tata Institute of Social Sciences (TISS) in North East Mumbai.  It led to a heated argument and the girl from Nagaland eventually had to leave the apartment.[27]

Case No.22:  Ms Hmingtei Chhangte from Mizoram screamed at as “Chinese” in Pune, Maharashtra

On 7 February 2020, Ms Hmingtei Chhangte, a young IT professional from Mizoram and based in Pune was subjected to humiliation in Reliance Mart after a shopper in the same aisle created a ruckus, saying she could be a carrier of COVID-19.[28] Ms Chhangte went for grocery shopping at Reliance Mart Aundh Pune, a lady covered her face every time the Mizo lady passed by and tried to avoid the victim while also making some comments. Ms Chhangte posted the video of the incident where a woman can be seen arguing with Chhangte and accusing her of spreading the coronavirus by not covering her face.  Narrating the experience, she said “The woman was making comments directed towards us suggesting we are Chinese. And when I confronted her she started to scream at us. This can happen to anyone from the Northeast”.[29]

3. The way forward: India must enact an anti-racism law

India has refused to enact an anti-racism legislation despite rampant racism being practiced in the country including against Mongoloid looking people of the country.

The Ministry of Home Affairs vide the Gazette of India notification No. S.O. 2339(E) dated 21 September 2010 notified that “The Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Racial Discrimination (CERD) adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations, as an International Covenant in its application to the protection of human rights in India.” By this notification, India made ICERD a part of the national law under the Protection of Human Rights Act of 1993.

In December 2015, the government of India told the parliament that “there is a proposal to amend the provisions of Indian Penal Code relating to promoting or attempting to promote acts prejudicial to human dignity and words, gestures or acts intended to insult a member of a particular racial group” as per the recommendations made by the “Bezbaruah Committee to look into the concerns of the North East living in other parts of the country”.[30]

However, as on date the government of India has not enacted any law against racism and racial discrimination, and the hate crimes continue unabated with impunity.

Unless the government of India enacts a law against racism and the Prime Minister and other key Ministers publicly and repeatedly rebuke the acts of racism and racial discrimination, India’s Mongoloid looking people shall continue to face racial discrimination.

As COVID-19 spreads, India’s Mongoloid looking people are all set to face increased racism and acts of racial discrimination in the absence of law and public rebuke necessary in this extraordinary situation.


[1].  “Bezbaruah Committee to look into the concerns of the people of the North East living in other parts of the country”  is available at https://mha.gov.in/sites/default/files/ReportOfMPBezbaruahCommittee.PDF

[2]. Gao seeks central directives on racial discrimination against NE people in the backdrop of Covid-19, Northeast Today, 18 March 2020,  https://www.northeasttoday.in/gao-seeks-central-directives-on-racial-discrimination-against-ne-people-in-the-backdrop-of-covid-19/

[3]. Centre Issuing Advisory after Incidents of Racial Remarks against People from NE States on Coronavirus, News18, 18 March 2020, https://www.news18.com/news/india/centre-issuing-advisory-after-incidents-of-racial-remarks-against-people-from-ne-states-on-coronavirus-2541417.html

[4]. Verbally abused, spat at, harassed: Northeastern citizens come under attack amid coronavirus panic, India Today, 23 March 2020, https://www.indiatoday.in/india/story/verbally-abused-spat-at-harassed-northeastern-citizens-come-under-attack-amid-coronavirus-panic-1658826-2020-03-23

[5]. The video is available at: https://twitter.com/anujironi/status/1241782165282549765

[6]. Delhi man spits at Manipuri woman, calls her ‘corona’; FIR filed, Indian Express, 23 March 2020, https://indianexpress.com/article/cities/delhi/delhi-man-spits-at-manipuri-woman-calls-her-corona-fir-filed-6327844/

[7]. Meiyang Chang Shares Ordeal of Racial Discrimination Amid Coronavirus Outbreak, MSN New available at  https://www.msn.com/en-in/entertainment/celebrity-news/meiyang-chang-shares-ordeal-of-racial-discrimination-amid-coronavirus-outbreak/ar-BB11ziIV?li=AAgfYGb

[8]. Racial taunts: People from Northeast are now called ‘coronavirus’, East Mojo, 21 March 2020, https://www.eastmojo.com/coronavirus-updates/2020/03/21/racial-taunts-people-from-northeast-are-now-called-coronavirus

[9]. Covid-19: Naga youths forced to spend 24 hours in Gujarat quarantine – despite no travel, no symptom, Scroll, 22 March 2020, https://scroll.in/article/956919/covid-19-naga-women-forced-to-spend-24-hours-in-gujarat-quarantine-despite-no-travel-no-symptoms?fbclid=IwAR3ck5nNhMbloVPqClzXGsYKBjaOiZEw7iBsF4EXsbs2-awVkCQ0y5HIOd0

[10].  Covid-19 outbreak in Chennai: ‘People from northeast being targeted’, Times of India, 21 March 2020,http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/articleshow/74740859.cms?utm_source=contentofinterest&utm_medium=text&utm_campaign=cppst

[11]. Stop Calling Us Coronavirus & Chinky: NE Students in Punjab Decry ‘Racism’, InsideNE, 16 March 2020,  https://insidene.com/2020/03/16/stop-calling-us-coronavirus-chinky-ne-students-in-punjab-decry-racism/

[12]. Racism During Crisis? Northeastern Students Tired Of Being Called ‘Coronavirus’, idiva, 18 March 2020, https://www.idiva.com/news-opinion/news/northeast-indians-face-racism-ask-not-to-be-called-coronavirus-in-emotional-viral-video/18007601

[13]. Racial taunts: People from Northeast are now called ‘coronavirus’, East Mojo, 21 March 2020, https://www.eastmojo.com/coronavirus-updates/2020/03/21/racial-taunts-people-from-northeast-are-now-called-coronavirus

[14]. On Kolkata streets, students from Darjeeling face racial slurs linked to coronavirus, Indian Express, 17 March 2020, https://indianexpress.com/article/education/on-kolkata-streets-students-from-darjeeling-face-racial-slurs-linked-to-coronavirus-6317822/

[15]. Mumbai: Amid coronavirus outbreak, Mulund society calls North-East man ‘Chinese’, denies entry, The Free Press Journal, 18 March 2020, https://www.freepressjournal.in/mumbai/mumbai-mulund-society-calls-north-east-man-chinese-denies-entry

[16]. Racism amid coronavirus: Northeast people at the receiving end, East Mojo,16 March 2020, https://www.eastmojo.com/opinion/2020/03/16/racism-amid-coronavirus-northeast-people-at-the-receiving-end

[17]. Amid coronavirus pandemic, India faces another danger, South China Morning Post, 15 March 2020,  https://www.scmp.com/week-asia/health-environment/article/3075268/amid-coronavirus-pandemic-india-faces-another-danger

[18]. On Kolkata streets, students from Darjeeling face racial slurs linked to coronavirus, Indian Express, 17 March 2020, https://indianexpress.com/article/education/on-kolkata-streets-students-from-darjeeling-face-racial-slurs-linked-to-coronavirus-6317822/

[19]. On Kolkata streets, students from Darjeeling face racial slurs linked to coronavirus, Indian Express, 17 March 2020, https://indianexpress.com/article/education/on-kolkata-streets-students-from-darjeeling-face-racial-slurs-linked-to-coronavirus-6317822/

[20]. Racial taunts: People from Northeast are now called ‘coronavirus’, East Mojo, 21 March 2020, https://www.eastmojo.com/coronavirus-updates/2020/03/21/racial-taunts-people-from-northeast-are-now-called-coronavirus

[21]. Being called corona: People from Northeast allege racial targeting in Delhi, India Today, 19 March 2020, https://www.indiatoday.in/india/story/coronavirus-outbreak-in-india-northeast-racial-targeting-delhi-1657276-2020-03-19

[22]. Northeast community fends off racist attacks with coronavirus label, Pune Mirror, 9 March 2020,
https://punemirror.indiatimes.com/pune/cover-story/northeast-community-fends-off-racist-attacks-with-coronavirus-label/articleshow/74542293.cms

[23]. Delhi: Northeast Woman Called ‘Coronavirus’ Near DU, Hit By water Balloons, Republic World, 10 March 2020,  https://www.republicworld.com/india-news/city-news/delhi-northeast-woman-called-coronavirus-near-du.html

[24]. Amid coronavirus scare, Northeast students at TISS allege racial prejudice, Hindustan Times, 17 February 2020, https://www.hindustantimes.com/india-news/amid-coronavirus-scare-northeast-students-at-tiss-allege-racial-prejudice/story-SVbeQW08qNW55MQ9RF0JOM.html

[25]. North-east students face racism in kirori mal college, DU Express, 2 March 2020,  https://duexpress.in/north-east-students-face-racism-in-kirori-mal-college/

[26].  Students from Northeast complain of racism at Kirori Mal College, Times of India, 11 February 2020, https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/delhi/students-from-northeast-complain-of-racism-at-kmc/articleshow/74071475.cms

[27]. Coronavirus: Naga woman mistaken for Chinese in Mumbai, made to leave building, E-pao, 16 February 2020,  http://e-pao.net/GP.asp?src=13..170220.feb20

[28]. People from north eastern States face racism, ‘Chinese’ slur in Pune, the Hindu, 11 March 2020, https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/other-states/people-from-north-eastern-states-face-racism-chinese-slur-in-pune/article31035275.ece

[29]. Amid coronavirus pandemic, India faces another danger, South China Morning Post, 15 March 2020,  https://www.scmp.com/week-asia/health-environment/article/3075268/amid-coronavirus-pandemic-india-faces-sanother-danger

[30]. See https://pib.gov.in/newsite/PrintRelease.aspx?relid=133765

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